The use of L1 in L2 learning (and teaching) is a controversy of long history which typically appears as a debate between the audio-lingual and the cognitive-code approaches to L2/FL instruction. It depicts the verbal representations for two different languages as two separate but connected logogen systems, characterizes the translation process as the activation along the connections between the logogen systems, and attributes the acquisition of This study tested a dual coding approach to bilingual memory using tasks that permit one to compare the effects of bilingual en- coding with verbal-nonverbal dual encod- … It is, therefore, logical and useful to summarize the main tenets of the two models. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in differences in referential images for L1 and L2. In the bilingual DCT, there are now two independent verbal systems which are linked to a common imagery system. This chapter discusses dual coding theory. The Paivio-Desrochers bilingual dual-coding model has spawned a number of empirical studies involving both European and Asian languages largely supporting the latter. This chapter updates the dual coding theory (DCT) of the memory systems of bilingual (and multilingual) individuals. The theory leads to a strong emphasis on the role of situational contexts and imagery in second language learning. In order to observe trilingual implications on Paivio's dual-coding theory, 48 undergraduate participants, half bilingual, and half trilingual, •were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. According to dual coding theory, (Paivio & Lambert, 1981) bilinguals have separate memory systems for each of their languages and a non-verbal system corresponding to images. Thus, this theory proposes that it’s possible to give it a boost.This is because it expands the study material through verbal associations and visual images. The bilingual dual-coding theory of Paivio-Desrochers (1980) represents a derivation of Paivio’s (1971) dual-coding theory expanded to bilingual learning (and, by extrapolation, to multilingualism). Results replicate and extend those of A. Paivio and W. E. Lambert (see record 1982-09020-001), demonstrating a 3.3:2.4:1 ratio of recall for images to translation equivalents to copying. The bilingual dual-coding theory (Paivio, 1986) partially answers the above questions. Paivio and Desrochers’ (1980) DCT model constituted an expansion of Paivio’s (1971) dual coding theory, which attempted to represent how cognitive processes worked. The theory is presented as a set of assumptions and hypotheses concerning the origins and the structural and functional properties of representational systems, along with examples of the empirical implications of those hypotheses. This chapter presents a bilingual version of dual coding theory. Results support bilingual dual coding theory as proposed by Paivio and A. Desrochers (see record 1982-02758-001). The Bilingual Dual-Coding Theory While Paivio’s [ 8 ] original theory refers to one language, Paivio—Desrochers’s [ 23 ] work extends the theory to two or more languages. sustained on Paivio and Desrochers’ (1980) dual coding theory to describe L2 reading comprehension for the case of the bilingual learner. These conditions were either translating or copying a list of 16 words they had to subsequently and unknowingly recall after an irrelevant anagram task. Later, Ss were unexpectedly tested for recall. 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